Forced labor: Data collection, sourced used, and risk assessment methodology
This subcategory provides an assessment of the risk of forced labor by country and by country-specific sector. The Global Slavery Index (GSI) 2016 provides a quantitative ranking of 167 countries worldwide according to the estimated prevalence of slavery, the estimated percentage of enslaved people in the national population at a point in time.
The Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report from 2019 divides countries into four groups. This report annually measures government efforts across prosecuting traffickers protecting victims and preventing crime. Tier 1 includes countries whose governments fully comply with the TVPA’s (Trafficking Victim Protection Act) minimum standards for eliminating trafficking. Under the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, an effective criminal justice response to human trafficking should treat the prosecution of cases as seriously as other grave crimes. The existence of a comprehensive anti-trafficking law and criminal accountability are essential elements that are looked upon. Tier 2 includes countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. Tier 3 includes those governments who do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards and are not making significant efforts. Countries In Tier 2 Watch list are those whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards and: The absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing; or There is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year; or The determination that a country is making significant efforts to comply with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional steps over the next year. The U.S. Department of Labor List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor 2019 is the primary resource to determine the potential social impact related to forced labor by sector. The department maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA). As of 2020, the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 155 goods from 77 countries.
Country-level The Global Slavery Index provides estimated percentages of enslaved people, and the risk levels were set (characterized) as follows: Low: <0.19% = Low, Medium>0.20 = Medium, High >0.30 = High, Very high>0.70 = Very High. The four groups described in the U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Person’s Report, namely Tier 1,2,3, and Tier 2 Watch List, correspond with low, medium, very high, and high risk. When data for a country was only available from a single source, the risk level associated with that source was used. Data from both sources were used when available. In those cases, a weighted average was determined for these 2 country-level measurements. Qualitative data from the GSI was weighted 85%, and data from the DOL weighed 15%.
Sector level The sectors related to the goods listed by the U.S. Department of Labor list of goods produced by forced labor are set at a “very high” risk level. Thus, where a specific commodity or sector is called out in the Human Rights Report or Trafficking in Persons Report (2019), the risk of the associated sector is increased by one level (for example, medium risk à high risk). All other sectors remain at the country-level risk.